유방암 연구를 위한 BIO-Marker 총정리, Breast Cancer



Oncofetal Antigen

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is usually present at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults. However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests.


Tumor Associated Antigens

CA15-3 While the CA 15-3 protein does not cause breast cancer, if a cancerous tumor is in your breast, your levels of CA 15-3 may increase as the number of cancer cells increase. This is because tumor cells may shed copies of the CA 15-3 protein, which can then be measured by a blood test.
CA27.29 ast cancer is the cancer most likely to release CA 27-29.
The FDA has approved the CA 27-29 blood test as a way for healthcare providers to monitor people with breast cancer. Antigens like CA 27-29 that give information about cancer are called tumor markers.





Hormes and Receptors


Estrogen Receptor (ER)

st cancer cells with ER and/or PR depend on estrogen and/or progesterone to grow. When the hormones estrogen and progesterone attach to these receptors, they fuel the cancer growth.
Progesterone Receptor (PR)


HER2/neu is a growth-promoting protein on the outside of all breast cells.
Breast cancer cells with higher than normal levels of HER2 are called HER2-positive.
These cancers tend to grow and spread faster than other breast cancers.

Transferrin Receptor

Transferrin receptor (CD71) is involved in the cellular uptake of iron and is expressed on cells with high proliferation. It may be implicated in promoting the growth of endocrine resistant phenotypes within ER+/luminal-like breast cancer.

Enzymes and Modulators

Plasminogen Activator

Inhibitor (PAI-1)

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is an extracellular matrix-degrading protease involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, interacting with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which was originally identified as a blood-derived endogenous fast-acting inhibitor of uPA.
Urokinase Plasminogen

Activator (uPA)


Serum and

Tissue proteins


Cytokeratin Fragments 21-1

(Cyfra 21-1)

Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is an acidic protein of 40 kDa that is part of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. It is highly expressed by all epithelial cells and represents a useful indicator of epithelial differentiation. The soluble fragment ofCK19 (CYFRA 21-1) can be a useful circulating tumor marker and can be detected in the serum of cancer patients.




Cancer Stem cells


Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells with the properties of high self-renewal, differentiation, and tumor-initiating functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a marker for CSCs in adult cancers.
CD24 CD24 is expressed in hematological malignancies as well as in a large variety of solid tumors including breast cancer.


CD44 is a cellular protein that has been intensively studied in relation to carcinogenesis over the last decade. It is altered during inflammatory responses and cellular malfunctioning during tumor progression. Tumors of epithelial origin express CD44 in multiple isoforms called variants.